Increased emphasis on green building design has resulted in a greater demand for more energy efficient building materials such as spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulations. Despite their excellent air sealing capability and insulating properties, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recognized that exposure to the isocyanates and other vapors, aerosols, and dusts created during and after installation, may cause respiratory sensitization, asthma, and odors.
Legionella is a type of Gram-negative bacteria that occurs naturally in freshwater environments. Although it is present in nature, Legionella becomes a substantial health concern when allowed to multiply in a building’s water systems. According to the U.S. Center for Disease Control (CDC), from 2000 through 2015, there were 49,930 confirmed Legionnaires’ cases in the United States. Legionnaires’ disease is a severe type of pneumonia that can rapidly become fatal. It is caused by breathing in aerosolized water droplets containing Legionella, with the majority of recognized Legionnaires’ disease cases occurring in hotels, resorts, cruise ships, and the healthcare setting.